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[华语] Gwhyneth Chen《Franz Liszt études ... transcendante》2019/320K/MP3/BD/CT

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发表于 2019-9-25 14:49:50 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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专辑名称:Franz Liszt études d'exécution transcendante
歌手名称:Gwhyneth Chen(陈毓襄)
制作发行:发现音乐
发行日期:2019年09月25日
专辑语言:纯音乐



专辑介绍:

前言 / 陈毓襄

在征服许多国际比赛及演奏会的挑战后,我受邀演奏一场最初看似不可能完成的表演—李斯特《超技练习曲》。大多数的人认为弹奏这12首练习曲只需要技巧,但事实上,除了技巧外,要演奏整部套曲,还需要热情以及精辟的思维去感受其中细微的心境共鸣。

这张CD是和身兼工程师与制作人Tom Lazarus,在录音室花了3天所完成的作品,我们最终选择长达75分钟且一次到位的版本。中国有个古老的寓言故事,讲述一条卑微的鲤鱼跃过龙门,变成一条强大无比的龙。在第三天,随着磁带转动着,我「跃过了龙门」一次录完那总共12首的《超技练习曲》。我认为演奏必须「一口气」完成的理由,可说与乐曲背后的故事相吻合,将透过以下叙述清楚说明。

李斯特的《超技练习曲》,能够带人透过乐曲中所阐述的人生故事,进入一段情感强烈的旅程。练习曲中的第一首到第三首是在为后五首做铺陈。从第四首到第八首,演奏者必须完全投入其中,彷彿超越人的境界。而第八首则是个重要的考验,决定演奏者最终能否跃过那道龙门的关键。这12首练习曲不同于其他作曲模式,将乐曲高潮设计于套曲中段,而是让演奏者在第八首练习曲〈狩猎〉中进入超凡境界。在历经肉体、情绪及灵魂的最高点后,乐曲将缓缓的进入第九首练习曲,这段的意境在描述人缅怀过去的美好,直到终曲的〈耙雪〉。最后,在〈耙雪〉的落雪意象中,弹奏者也将无可避免地感受到生命不过是一场徒劳。

《旧约圣经》中的《传道书》开头提到「虚空的虚空,凡事都是虚空」。《般若波罗蜜多心经》中,释迦摩尼佛则是以「无智亦无得」的洞见来质疑尘世间无尽的追求。也许,李斯特想透过这12首练习曲传达上述那无意义追逐的道理。

在这英雄旅程的结尾,李斯特呈现给我们一片被雪覆盖的景色。彷彿被吹逝于空气中的雪,练习曲及人生皆双双在此终结。人生悲惨讽刺的就是:在最后一口气之后,一切也结束了,财富、声望以及权利最终都化作虚无。李斯特要我们去深思欲望及斗争的无益,最终,它们的价值又是什么?

这令我想起一部文学作品:清代作家曹雪芹(1715-1763)的《红楼梦》,其中的悲剧情节与李斯特的超技练习曲相似,其结局以贾府衰败及降雪收场;任何先前的权势、名声及荣耀归无所得。

当我一口气弹完李斯特12首《超技练习曲》,我更深感进入了这部作品的阴暗处,使我更坚韧得以完成这趟巡礼。李斯特的《超技练习曲》是作曲家结合哲学与技巧的典范,同时也造就这技巧高超且永恒不朽的作品。

我想感谢Tom Lazarus在录制期间的耐心以及他所给予的自由。我也想感谢李斯特的第五代弟子Ivo Pogorelich 与Aliza Kezeradze。最后,谢谢当初安排我在2011年为李斯特两百周年诞辰弹奏《超技练习曲》的焦元溥先生。

Preface/Gwhyneth Chen

After conquering the challenges of international competitions and the concert stage, I was presented with a proposal which initially seemed impossible - - to perform Liszt’s Transcendental études. Many people assume that the Transcendental Etudes are only technically demanding, but in fact what they require goes beyond technique. To play the études demands technique, passion and a discerning intellect, open to a subtle and spiritual vibration.

This CD is the result of a three-day studio session with engineer and producer Tom Lazarus, but the recording we selected happened in one, long 75-minute take. There is an ancient Chinese fable about a lowly carp who, by leaping over the dragon gate, transforms into a powerful dragon. On the third day, with the tape running, I “jumped over the dragon gate” and played the set of twelve études in a single take. The reasons why I feel that playing them “in a single breath,” so to speak, accords with the Liszt’s story-line in the Transcendental études will be made clear below.

Liszt’s Transcendental études are a set of stories that take one on an emotional journey through a person’s lifetime. études no.1 to no. 3 are a warmup, a preparation for the next five études. From étude no. 4 to no. 8 the pianist must give her all, to seemingly transcend the human realm. étude no. 8 is the crucial test to determining whether or not she can ultimately leap the dragon gate. During “Wilde Jagd,” one reaches the point of transcendence; unusual among compositions in that the peak occurs in the middle of the set. After this physical, emotional, and spiritual climax, the music gradually descends from étude no. 9, which is like someone reminiscing over the glories of the past, to the final piece, “Chasse-neige.’ Amid the falling snow of “Chasse-neige,” the pianist comes face to face with the inescapable realization of the futility of life’s striving.

“Vanity of vanities; all is vanity,” says a statement at the beginning of the “Book of Ecclesiastes” in the Old Testament. The Buddha in the Heart Sutra questions the point of worldly striving with this deep insight: “There is no knowing and no attaining.” Perhaps Liszt in his twelve études is pointing us to that same unsettling realization of the pointlessness of the chase.

At the end of this heroic journey, Liszt shows us a landscape covered by snow. The études and life itself both end with a handful of snow sent into the air by a puff of breath. The tragic irony of life: one last breath and it’s all over. Wealth, prestige, and power come to nothing in the end. Liszt asks us to contemplate the vanity of our desires and our struggles. What are they worth, ultimately?

One recalls Dream of the Red Chamber, the Qing Dynasty novel by Cao Xueqin (1715-1763) which mirrors the tragic story-line of the études. The novel ends in a snowfall with the tragic ruin of the Jia family; nothing remains of their former power, eminence and glory.

Having played the twelve études in one breath, I felt that I had traveled into the shadows and emerged stronger for having made the journey. Liszt’s études represent the epitome of a composer’s alchemical blending of philosophy and technique to create brilliant, undying music.

I want to thank Tom Lazarus for his patience and his gift of freedom when making this recording. I also want to thank Ivo Pogorelich and Aliza Kezeradze, who was the fifth generational student in the lineage of Franz Liszt himself. Thanks to YuanPu Chiao who originally commissioned me to play the études as a set commemorating Liszt’s 200th anniversary in 2011.

陈毓襄/钢琴

1970年7月29日出生的美籍华裔钢琴家-陈毓襄,在1993年的波哥雷里奇钢琴大赛中,赢得了史上最高奖金十万美元;年仅二十三岁的她,是当时最小的参赛者。赛后,波哥雷里奇(Ivo Pogorelich, 1958-)本人还称盛她的才华“好得令人难以置信”,随后其知名度水涨船高,成为当时钢琴界中最重要的新锐;而美国CNN电视也在国际间转播了此优秀成绩。

出生于台湾,1980年和家人移居至美国,与Eduarado Delgado (1943-)、 Robert Turner (1914-2001) 及Aube Tzerko (1907-1995) 学习音乐。于美国茱莉亚音乐学院取得学士及硕士学位,期间曾师事Martin Canin (1930-) 、Byron Janis (1928-) 及殷承宗 (1941-)。11岁时与乐团首次公演弹奏普罗高菲夫第三号钢琴协奏曲。1990年她以十九岁之龄在国际柴可夫斯基钢琴大赛的获奖,接着在1992年得到了普罗高菲夫国际钢琴大赛的奖项。

她还与许多杰出的乐团合作过,包括洛杉矶爱乐交响乐团 (The Los Angeles Philharmonic),卑尔根爱乐团 (Bergen Philharmonic),国立台湾交响乐团 (Taiwan National Orchestra),莫斯科爱乐乐团 (Moscow State Philharmonic)…等。她还应邀新克罗拉多交响乐团首演,于McNichols体育馆内,在一万五千名观众前弹奏柴可夫斯基第一号钢琴协奏曲。

1994年她与普雷特涅夫(Mikhail Pletnev, 1957-)及俄罗斯国家管弦乐团合作,于莫斯科音乐学院大礼堂演出拉赫曼尼诺夫第三号钢琴协奏曲。1999年发行收录史克里亚宾 (Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin, 1871-1915) 及史特拉汶斯基 (Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky, 1882-1971) 的作品辑。

她在国际音乐节中极受欢迎,时常参与各地音乐节演出。2008年陈毓襄应中华人民共和国政府邀请参加了北京国家大剧院的开幕演出,在国内更被誉为「台湾之光」。

Gwhyneth Chen/Piano

Ms Gwhyneth Chen, a Taiwanese American pianist who in 1993, won the biggest cash prize in the history of piano competitions ($100,000.00) . Ms. Chen, then a young lady of 23, was the youngest contestant at the 1993 Ivo Pogorelich International Piano Competition. Subsequent to the award, Mr. Ivo Pogorelich (1958-) himself said of her talent, “She is too good to be true.” Immediately recognized as one of the foremost pianists of her generation, the victory was broadcast internationally on CNN television.

Born in Taiwan, Ms Chen emigrated to the United States with her family in 1980, where she continued her musical studies with Eduardo Delgado (1943-), Robert Turner (1914-2001), and Aube Tzerko (1907-1995). She received her Bachelor and Master of Music degrees from the Juilliard School. While in New York, her teachers were Martin Canin (1930-), Byron Janis (1928-) and Yin Cheng-Zong (1941-). Her first performance with orchestra was at age eleven when she performed Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev’s (1891-1953) Piano Concerto No. 3. At the age of nineteen, she was a laureate in the 1990 Tchaikovsky International Piano Competition. In 1992, she was once again a laureate, this time in the Prokofiev International Piano Competition.

Ms Chen has appeared with an outstanding number of orchestras, including the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Bergen Philharmonic, Taiwan National Orchestra, Moscow State Philharmonic, and etc. For the extravagant debut of the New Colorado Symphony, she was chosen as the first soloist performing the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No.1 before a crowd of 15,000 at the McNichols Stadium.

In 1994, she played the opening concert of the season in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory with the Russian National Orchestra under Mikhail Pletnev (1957-), performing the Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No.3. In 1999, her first CD was released, featuring works by Scriabin and Stravinsky.

Ms. Chen received high honor from international musical and diplomatic circles when she was invited by the government of China (PRC) to perform a concert in the National Centre for the Performing Arts in Beijing, China, to celebrate the 2008 Olympics, and she was acclaimed nation-wide as “The Pride of Taiwan.”.

超越技巧的技巧:李斯特《超技练习曲》

焦元溥

所谓的「练习曲」其实是多种概念的统称。若就内涵加以细分,可列为三种:第一是「技巧练习」(Exercise)。这类作品旨在特定技术练习,多以不断重复的音型组织而成。最为极端的「技巧练习」甚至没有音乐可言,完全供取得特定技巧之用。第二是「练习曲」(Study/étude)。如果作曲家针对特定技巧创作,乐曲以类似音型组成,但有音乐与艺术表现,如此就可称为「练习曲」。第三是「音乐会练习曲」(Concert étude)。此类作品不必然以固定音型构成,但必然有特定技巧展示,而这技巧又往往是作曲家的创新发明。李斯特十二首《超技练习曲》(études d'exécution transcendante, S. 139)虽如「练习曲」多有固定音型,性质却为「音乐会练习曲」,每曲也不只练习一种技巧,是多种技巧的混合。

早在1826年,十五岁的李斯特 (Franz Liszt, 1811-1886) 就计划以二十四个大小调写作四十八首练习曲,但最后仅完成《十二首技巧练习》(étude en douze exercices, S. 136)。到了1837年,深受帕格尼尼 (Niccolò Paganini, 1782-1840) 刺激的他,以全新视野大幅改订,是为《十二首大练习曲》(Douze Grandes études, S. 137),果然在钢琴上展现鬼神见愁的惊人技巧。然而他并不以此为满足,于1852年再次精修,出版为十二首《超技练习曲》,献给老师彻尔尼 (Carl Czerny, 1791-1857)。比较前后两版,1837年版过于复杂,声音效果也不理想。1852年版虽仍艰深,但钢琴写作合理,乐思表现成熟,是更杰出的创作。

新版《超技练习曲》是李斯特多年研究钢琴音色、音响、力度表现与技巧招式后所积累的心得大宗,但他要表现的并非只是技巧,而是「透过技巧展现音乐想象」。这也是为何这十二曲篇幅几乎都较一般练习曲长,其中十曲也有标题的原因。直至今日,《超技练习曲》仍是钢琴技巧之顶冠经典,严苛考验钢琴家的手指与头脑。

Beyond Technical Skills: Franz Liszt études d'exécution transcendante

Yuan-Pu Chiao

The term “étude” is a general expression that can hold several meanings and can be subdivided into three different types. The first type is “Exercise”. An “Exercise” is a composition based on a repetitive pattern, designed to develop a specific technical skill. The most extreme examples of these “Exercises” do not have any musical purpose, but are fully dedicated to the development of specific skills. The second type for “étude” is “Study”. This type of composition also uses repeating patterns in order to build up particular skills but with substantial musical and artistic expressions. The third type is called “Concert étude”. While this type of work is also devoted to the practice of specific skills, it does not necessarily consist of repeating patterns and often demonstrates an innovation in the technique of composition. Although we find several repeating patterns in the études d'exécution transcendante, S. 139, because of their nature they classify as "Concert études," these pieces are not designed to develop a single technical skill but, rather, several skills that interact with each other.

As early as 1826, the then 15-year-old Franz Liszt (1811-1886) had planned to write forty-eight études in each of the twenty-four major and minor keys. However, in the end he only completed the étude en douze exercices, S. 136. In 1837, he was greatly inspired by Niccolò Paganini (1782-1840), who opened up new horizons for him and changed his artistic vision and resulted in the production of the Douze Grandes études, S. 137, in which he really gave the pianist an opportunity to show off his astonishing skills on the piano. However, Liszt was not satisfied with his work. In 1852, he refined and published it as twelve études d'exécution transcendante or Transcendental études dedicated to Carl Czerny(1791-1857), Liszt’s mentor. If we compare the latter two, the 1837 version may seem overly complex and with unideal sound effect. Although still demanding in skills, the 1852 version is more consistent and its style more mature, which makes it a much more prominent work.

The 1852 version of études d'exécution transcendante is a masterpiece, with an emphasis on tone poems, sound images, intense dynamics and astounding technical difficulties. However, this work is not merely a virtuosic showmanship, but rather expresses musical images through technical skills. That explains the longer length of the twelve compositions compared to other études in general, and the titles given to ten of them. To this day, it remains a formidable challenge for the pianist technically and artistically, the études d'exécution transcendante are still seen as the culmination of technical skills for the piano.

第一曲〈前奏曲〉,C大调

自巴赫 (Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750) 《十二平均律》 (Well-Tempered Clavier) 第一册前奏曲以来,如何在C大调中试验各种转调,似乎就成了西方作曲家的传统。《超技练习曲》第一首名为「前奏曲」,如萧邦(Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, 1810-1849)C大调第一首练习曲一般回溯巴赫,在短短二十三小节内展现恢宏的音域幅度、不凡气势以及灿烂丰富的和声变化,正是全曲集的精采缩影。

No. 1, Preludio (C major)

Since Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685-1750) first book of the Well-Tempered Clavier, experimenting with various transpositions in C major seems to be the tradition among Western composers. We find examples of this with the first of the études d'exécution transcendante called “Preludio”, and also with Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin's (1810-1849) "étude Op. 10, No. 1". In a short twenty-three bars, Liszt displays a magnificent sound range, extraordinary momentum and splendid richness in harmonization, all of which makes it the highlight of the 12 études.

第二曲〈A小调练习曲〉

接在C大调第一曲,第二首练习曲以其平行小调(德文用法;英文是关系调)谱出,是属一属二的超级难曲。篇幅虽短,却技巧性地大量违反前辈彻尔尼和胡麦尔 (Johann Nepomuk Hummel, 1778-1837)等人所归纳出演奏规律,要求不可思议的手掌移位与手指独立性。在乐曲高潮之巅,钢琴家竟必须双手交替,横跨五个八度上下来回,简直是体操表演。此曲和第十曲,是全曲集中唯二没有标题之作。当然有人会发挥想象自添标题,布梭尼 (Ferruccio Busoni, 1866-1924) 就将第二曲命名为「火箭」(Fusées),第十曲命名为「热情」(Appassionata)。但它们之所以没有标题,或许在于此二曲的确是《超技练习曲》中格式最严谨之作:既然结构章法面面俱到,就该让音乐表现抽象美感,展现绝对音乐的纯粹之美,何必要以标题设想?此曲从最简单的单音、音程开始,一路发展出多重声部,在中段方提出旋律,充分发展后又逐渐收尾,最后回到开头单音,结构确实令人赞叹。

No. 2, Molto vivace (A minor)

Following the first piece in C major, the second étude is composed in its relative minor, which is a very difficult tonality to play in. Although the work is short, in many ways it breaks with a large number of rules established by Liszt's predecessors Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837), and others. The work requires strong finger independence and rapid hand shifting movements. In fact, at the climax of this piece, the pianist performs something similar to a gymnastic performance with both hands alternating on the same note up and down five octaves repeatedly. This composition and the tenth are the only two of the whole series that do not have titles. Of course, some have used their imagination to add titles of their own. Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), for instance, had named the second piece “Fusées” (Rockets) and the tenth “Appassionata”. The unparalleled rigor of these two pieces might explain the absence of a title. Since the structure of the composition is all-encompassing and speaks for itself, is a title really necessary? Why not simply let the music express its abstract and pure beauty? The piece begins with the simplest monophony and intervals that soon evolve into multiple voices before introducing the melody in the middle section. After a full development, the composition gradually returns to a simpler expression only to finally come back to the initial monophonic sound. The structure is amazing indeed.

第三曲〈风景〉,F大调

此曲具有优美诗意,隐藏其中的则是艰深的左手与掌握不易的田园风韵律。李斯特动辄开展出四声部对话,左手在声部区分的考验下更有困难的跳跃与扩张,又必须和右手开展出不对称的旋律应答,加上精巧的和声设计与缜密的织体处理,难度不可小觑。至于曲题,一般认为是乡间图画,也有人认为暗指雨果 (Victor Marie Hugo, 1802-1885) 同名诗作。但无论如何,就如白辽士 (Hector Louis Berlioz, 1803-1869) 《幻想交响曲》 (Symphonie Fantastique) 第三乐章〈田园景色〉 (Scène aux champs ) 一般,从十八世纪至十九世纪初,所谓田园或风景主题,重心都在人对自然的感怀,而非纯粹自然描写。李斯特放入〈风景〉,确实反映时代风尚。

No. 3, Paysage (F major)

The technical difficulties of the left hand and the intricate pastoral rhythm of this composition are well-hidden under its poetic beauty. Challenged by the voicing of a four-part dialogue, the left hand executes arduous extensions and stretches, while the right hand reciprocates with an asymmetrical melody. Along with the delicate harmony and meticulous treatment of texture, no one can deny the difficulty of the work. As for the title, it is generally considered to be a portrayal of the countryside, bringing to mind Victor Marie Hugo's (1802-1885) poem of the same name. But in any case, what is important here is that, just like in the third movement “Scène aux champs” in Hector Berlioz's (1803-1869) Symphonie Fantastique or any pastoral or scenic theme from the 18th to early 19th century, the focus is on people's feelings for nature, rather than simply its description. By giving a title such as “Paysage” to the composition, Liszt really reflects the fashion of his time.

第四曲〈马采巴〉,D小调

演奏此曲不只需要过人的力道与敏捷,还必须面对李斯特设计的困难三度音指法(又是刻意和彻尔尼规则相反,训练手掌位置快速移动的技巧),以及狂热的八度和大跳。此曲灵感来自雨果诗作,乌克兰英雄马采巴,从侍童到王者的传奇人生。李斯特也曾谱写《马采巴》交响诗,〈马采巴〉练习曲就是交响诗版本前半,描绘主角被绑在马后、拖行于荒野的情景。或许就是要有疯狂的跳跃技巧,还有绝对避免任何圆滑奏可能的三度音指法,才能表现达达马蹄之原野狂奔,无所匹敌的奔腾气势。此曲另一让人惊奇之处,在于从头到尾几乎就是单一旋律,若非技巧和节奏设计皆有妙思,听众必感厌倦—事实上,李斯特的确费心思索。我们今日所见之〈马采巴〉,竟然是他第七个版本,足称作曲家天才与苦功的证明。在〈马采巴〉最后,旋律终于有所改变,以装饰奏乐段表现内心转折,最后导入辉煌结尾,呼应雨果诗句「落马却称王」。

No. 4, Mazeppa (D minor)

Playing this piece not only requires strength endurance and agility, but the pianist must also tackle Liszt's difficult three-hand effect (deliberately contrary to Czerny's rules of training the hand position to move quickly), crazy octaves and big jumps. This composition was inspired by Victor Hugo's poem about the Ukrainian hero Mazeppa, a simple servant who became a legendary king. Liszt used the “Mazeppa” étude as the first half of his symphonic poem of the same name, depicting the protagonist being strapped to a wild horse and dragged into the wilderness. The sound of the galloping horses is done by insane octave jumps and absolute precision of the three-hand effect with special fingering by Liszt to prevent any legato. This gives unparalleled momentum to the composition. He continues to impress us by using only one theme throughout this piece. If not for his genius in technical and rhythmic variations, it would’ve sounded monotonous. The “Mazeppa” we have today is actually the seventh version, which is a proof of the aspiration and perspiration of the composer. Towards the end of the piece, the melody finally takes a turn, expressing a change of state. The brilliant coda ends echoing Victor Hugo's verse, “He falls, then rises a king!”

第五曲〈鬼火〉,降B大调

和萧邦〈三度音〉练习曲并称,〈鬼火〉大概是史上最让人胆战心惊的练习曲。两者都要求完美的手指独立性,更逼钢琴家在钢索上跳舞,在极快速、极困难的音符中灵快唱歌。〈鬼火〉甚至强调必须弹得极弱(pianissimo)又极轻(leggierissimo),堪称钢琴技巧中困难至极的轻功大成。甚至它还不只右手困难,更以繁复音符与左手整人的大跳闻名于世。如何征服难如登天的技巧,同时表现磷光点点的鬼魅气氛,一直着考验一代又一代的技巧天才,连霍洛维兹都认为这是世界上最难的练习曲。而此曲在音响设计上的创新,又悄悄开启日后印象派音乐的大门。虽然艰深至极,却也迷人无比。

No. 5, Feux follets (B-flat major)

Chopin's “étude en tierces” and Liszt's “Feux follets” are probably the most terrifying études in history. Both demand perfect finger independence and require the performer to “dance” on an iron wire while singing the fast and intricate passages. Its title, “Feux follets”, even emphasizes that it must be played in an extremely soft (pianissimo) and light (leggierissimo) fashion, which is without a doubt a very challenging task on the piano. Not only is this piece notoriously difficult for the right hand, it is also infamous for the intricate notes and the big jumps in the left hand. This composition has been a big challenge of technical difficulty for generations of pianists, who, while conquering the terrifying virtuosity, one must also bring to life the ghostly flickering lights and whimsical character. Even Horowitz (1903-1989) considered this étude to be the most difficult in the world. The composition's innovation in sound illustration quietly opens the door to future impressionist music. Although it is extremely difficult, it is also incomparably charming.

第六曲〈幻影〉,G小调

此曲要求手指和手掌的延伸与弹性、双手反向行进、双音琶奏和颤音。和〈马采巴〉类似,〈幻影〉也以不同技巧表现做为变奏,将两主题依序发挥。论及意涵,〈幻影〉可能也意指雨果同名诗作,但从李斯特笔记上的原始构思,以及笔记中「神怒之日」的纪录,加上「沉重的慢板」(Lento Pesante)之标示,此曲应是葬礼景象,李斯特研究者雷伯(Peter Raabe, 1872–1945)与布梭尼甚至认为它是对拿破仑的纪念。无论内涵为何,〈幻影〉在哀伤中有壮阔,确实具有英雄形象,钢琴家也必须展现出大开大阖的演奏气势。

No. 6, Vision (G minor)

This composition is a practice of extension and elasticity of the hands, contrary motion of the hands, arpeggiated double notes and tremolos. Like in “Mazeppa”, Liszt wrote variations on the theme by using different kinds of technical skills. The meaning of the title, "Vision", may here again relate to Victor Hugo's poem of the same name. However if we refer to Liszt’s notebook, the original idea might come from “Dies Irae”, to which Liszt attributed the tempo marking, “Lento Pesante”. Liszt’s biographer Peter Raabe (1872–1945) and Busoni even thought that this composition was in fact a funeral scene, a memorial to Napoleon. However, amidst the darkness and sorrow is magnificence, a sense of heroism. It is the pianist’s task to exhibit all of its grandeur and greatness.

第七曲〈英雄〉,降E大调

自从贝多芬(Ludwig Van Beethoven, 1770-1827)《英雄》交响曲之后,降E大调就成了「英雄」的象征,李斯特此曲和理查‧史特劳斯(Richard Georg Strauss, 1894-1949)交响诗《英雄生涯》,都以降E大调谱成。它以相当简单的主题开展,一样以多种技巧不断发展变化,到乐曲高潮则是双手八度琶音,来回反复不断跳跃。至于如何从尖锐奇突的开头,一路开展出英雄形象,那又是演奏家的另一层考验。

No. 7, Eroica (E-flat major)

Since Ludwig Van Beethoven's (1770-1827) Eroica Symphony, the E major tonality has become a symbol of “heroism”. Liszt’s étude and Richard Georg Strauss' (1894-1949) Symphonic Poem Ein Heldenleben are both in E-flat major. This étude has a fairly simple theme that gradually evolves with constant technical variations. It finally erupts with rapid octave arpeggiation in both hands. As for how to bring the sharp and abrupt opening to a heroic glory is the challenge for the performer.

第八曲〈狩猎〉,C小调

〈狩猎〉也是著名难曲,要求灵活手腕和扎实八度跳跃技巧。乐曲是单一主题,随着音乐行进逐步增强,最后白热化收尾。然而此曲最引人玩味之处,或许还是标题:这里的「狩猎」并非一般打猎,而和魔鬼传说有关。标题可能来自韦伯(Carl Maria von Weber, 1786-1826)歌剧《魔弹射手》(Der Freischütz),七颗魔鬼子弹追逐猎物的场景,也有可能如法朗克(Cesar Franck, 1822-1890)后来的交响诗《被诅咒的猎人》(Le Chasseur Maudit),讲述德国传说「野猎」故事:领主安息日不作礼拜却出游打猎,最后被上帝惩罚,要被魔鬼永世追逐。无论所指为何,此曲的「打猎」是群魔乱舞、恶鬼出游,是魔鬼形象的化身,也是这十二曲中的热门作。

No. 8, Wilde Jagd (C minor)

Like several other Transcendental études, “Wilde Jagd”, is known for its difficulty, and requires flexible wrists as well as rapid octave jumping skills. The piece is mono-thematic, which, as the music progresses, gradually builds up to finish in great fervor. Still, the most intriguing part of this composition probably resides in its title, “Hunting”. In this context, “Hunting” does not refer to the general meaning of the word, but is related to the German folk legend of the devil. The title might come from the scene of the seven devilish bullets chasing their prey in Carl Maria von Weber's (1786-1826) opera Der Freischütz. Another possibility could be Cesar Franck's (1822-1890) Symphonic Poem The Accursed Huntsman (Le Chasseur Maudit), which retells the German legend of the The Wild Hunter. The story goes that the count did not pray on the Sabbath but traveled to hunt. Punished by God he is chased by the demons of eternity. With or without its title, this composition – one of the most popular of the twelve études – is the incarnation of evil dances and spirits, the embodiment of the image of the devil.

第九曲〈回忆〉,降A大调

在快速奔放的〈狩猎〉和〈F小调练习曲〉之间,李斯特安排了慢速的〈回忆〉,演奏时间通常也是全曲集中最长的一曲。前面数曲,我们看到李斯特引用雨果诗作,也可能引用歌德(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832)场景,有自然风光也有民间传说。到了〈回忆〉,作曲家终于描写自己。也或许正是因为写自己,在展示各种惊人技巧后,李斯特知道谦虚,写出单纯却暧昧的幽微情感。全曲宛如即兴抒怀,话到嘴边终是语带保留;曾经拥有的,现在已是褪色情诗。虽然技巧不艰深,李斯特仍将其放入《超技练习曲》,也可见他平衡曲集的独到心思。

No. 9, Ricordanza (A-flat major)

Between the fast and unrestrained “Wilde Jagd” and the “Allegro agitato molto”, Liszt inserted a slow “Ricordanza”. Its performance time is usually the longest of the whole series of études. In the preceding pieces, Liszt quotes Hugo and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's (1749-1832) poems for their nature and folk scenes. But when it comes to memories and reminiscences, the composer reflects on himself in the music. Perhaps because he was writing about himself, after demonstrating all kinds of astonishing techniques, Liszt was humbled and wrote about simple but ambiguous emotions. The piece is like an improvisation, the words are constrained; what they once owned is now a fading poem. Although the work is not extremely demanding technically, it is still included in the études d'exécution transcendante, which shows Liszt's unique thought for the overall balance of the series.

第十曲〈F小调练习曲〉

此曲和贝多芬《热情》(Appassionata) 奏鸣曲皆以F小调谱成,而此曲1837年版最后结尾也的确和《热情》奏鸣曲结尾相似,两者或许真有联系,李斯特所设下的严谨结构也足以和贝多芬相比:〈F小调练习曲〉是具体而微的奏鸣曲式,激昂情感和工整章法完美结合,确是极具功力的写作。此曲有许多双手交替音型,演奏者必须掌握精准,并且在看似机械性的技法中表现出强劲张力与旋律美感。听众不容易察觉的,则是不易弹好的左手音型。如何同时呈现此曲的情感与形式之美,演奏地流畅而非突兀,自然是演奏家的高段挑战。

No. 10, Allegro agitato molto (F minor)

This composition shares the tonality of F minor with Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata. There are similarities in the coda between the 1837 version and the finale of the Appassionata Sonata. The two works might indeed be related. In fact, the strict structure established by Liszt for this piece can be compared to the one found in Beethoven's Sonata. The Allegro agitato molto is in itself a micro-sonata, and is a perfect combination of passionate emotions and drama. It is indeed very powerful writing. There are many passages played by alternating hands. The performer must master precision and exhibit the strong tension and melodic aesthetic of the music, using what seems to be a mere mechanical technique. The audience will not easily detect how difficult it is to obtain a good sound in the left hand. It is the performer’s challenge to simultaneously reveal the beauty of the emotions and the clarity of the form, while maintaining a smooth and seamless sound.

第十一曲〈晚间的和声〉,降D大调

〈晚间的和声〉和〈回忆〉是《超技练习曲》中演奏时间最长的两首,但〈晚间的和声〉曲境更为丰富。此曲与其说是描述黄昏与夜晚,不如说是李斯特对和声的礼赞。不只有夜晚的幽暗与神秘,更有功力深厚的和声写作,如同晚霞千变万化;既有晚间情调与钟声摹写,也洋溢对和声本身的想象与创意。〈晚间的和声〉充满大型和弦,演奏者不但得以杰出技巧弹出平衡的张力,更要在和弦堆中表现李斯特独到的旋律感与转调手法,是全曲集最富诗意,也最难以表现完整的艰深之作。也因为有了〈晚间的和声〉和〈回忆〉,《超技练习曲》也就不落入纯然炫技,堪称面面俱到的艺术精品。

No. 11, Harmonies du soir (D-flat major)

“Harmonies du soir” and “Ricordanza” are the two longest of études d'exécution transcendante, but “Harmonies du soir” is richer in its artistic conception. This piece is not so much a description of dusk and night, as it is Liszt's praise for harmony. The piece has not only the darkness and mystery of the night, but it is also profound in harmony writing, i.e. the deep and agreeable harmonies of the ever-changing sunset, the mood of evening and bells, and the imagination and creativity of harmony. “Harmonies du soir” is full of large chords, the performer must not only have outstanding skills to bring out the tension inherent in their stability, but must also, among that mass of chords, express Liszt's unique sense of melody and transposition. This composition is the most poetic of the whole series, and it also has the most difficult overall presentation. Because of “Harmonies du soir” and “Ricordanza”, the études d'exécution transcendante are not merely pure fireworks and acrobatics; on the contrary, they make the totality a fine piece of art.

第十二曲〈耙雪〉,降B 小调

作为《超技练习曲》最终大曲,李斯特果然没有令人失望,写下技巧艰难至极的〈耙雪〉:此曲以各种不同颤音构成,另有掌控不易的八度与跳跃,既严格要求手指独立性,又逼求准确的力度控制。钢琴家要表现双手交替歌唱旋律线,更要在键盘上展现跳跃特技,方能营造天寒地冻、如履薄冰之危颤感受。布梭尼认为〈耙雪〉具体呈现雪花纷飞,逐渐掩埋平川大江、城镇市集的冬日景象,意象与音乐皆美,是十二曲艺术成就最高的一首。或许,正要有技巧和艺术皆达顶峰的创作,再加上那「落了片白茫茫大地真干净」的空寂意象,方能为《超技练习曲》收尾,也让这十二曲有了最隽永的句点。

No. 12, Chasse-neige (B-flat minor)

As for the final piece of the études d'exécution transcendante, Liszt does not disappoint in his demand of technical skills. The étude is composed of numerous tremolos, octave jumps, and not only involves strict finger independence, but also requires extreme accuracy in hand control. In order to recreate a cold and chilly atmosphere, such as the feeling of trepidation on thin ice, the pianist must make the singing melodic line by playing wide jumps with alternating hands on the keyboard. Busoni said, “’Chasse-neige’ is a sublime and steady fall of snow which gradually buries both landscape and people.” In this composition, imagery and music beautifully meet. The piece also represents the highest artistic achievement of the twelve études. The essential skills and art are necessary to reach the peak of creation, coupled with the feeling of emptiness of, “The falling piece of white cleaning the vast expanses of the earth”, concludes the études d'exécution transcendante, leaving these twelve compositions with an eternal ending.

钢琴大师阿劳(Claudio Arrau, 1903-1991)曾说「演奏李斯特,所要求的技巧比实际需求更高,如此方能予人毫不费力、舒展自如之感。」诚然,若要演奏《超技练习曲》且能游刃有余,钢琴家岂能只是练好学会而已。要全面表现此曲中的文学想象,演奏家又怎能只是练琴?透过技法探索与情境描写,李斯特不只为世人留下伟大创作,更指引音乐演奏的终极境界,超越技巧的技巧。

The great master Claudio Arrau (1903-1991) once said: “Playing Liszt requires more skills than one actually needs, so that you can feel effortless and relaxed.” True, to play the études d'exécution transcendante, one cannot simply practice them as exercises, but must fully express their literary imagination. How can one be content with practicing the piano only? Through the exploration of techniques and contextual descriptions, Liszt not only leaves us with a masterwork, but also takes us to the ultimate realm of music performance and technical skills beyond technical skills.

Recording avenue: Academy of Arts and Letters New York, USA

Final Recording Date: 2018.07

Engineer: Tom Lazarus

Piano by Steinway & Sons


专辑曲目:

01.No. 1, Preludio (C Major)
02.No. 2, Molto vivace (A Minor)
03.No. 3, Paysage (F Major)
04.No. 4, Mazeppa (D Minor)
05.No. 5, Feux follets (B-Flat Major)
06.No. 6, Vision (G Minor)
07.No. 7, Eroica (E-Flat Major)
08.No. 8, Wilde Jagd (C Minor)
09.No. 9, Ricordanza (A-Flat Major)
10.No. 10, Allegro agitato molto (F Minor)
11.No. 11, Harmonies du soir (D-Flat Major)
12.No. 12, Chasse-neige (B-Flat Minor)






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颜小健《梦游人行道》2019/320K/MP3/BD/CT
王菲《我和我的祖国》2019/320K/MP3/百度

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发表于 2019-9-29 16:07:02 | 显示全部楼层
听听古典。。。

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职业歌手

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发表于 2019-10-3 19:20:59 | 显示全部楼层
钢琴可是最喜欢的东西了

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发表于 2019-10-7 21:35:47 | 显示全部楼层
太有个性了,哈哈,音乐肯定也有意思。

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发表于 2019-10-13 07:09:36 | 显示全部楼层
透过技巧展现音乐想象
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